Relation to Standards

MathAccording to the National Council for Teachers of Mathematics:

Educational goals for students must reflect the importance of mathematical literacy. Toward this end, the K-12 standards articulate five general goals for all students: (1) that they learn to value mathematics, (2) that they become confident in their ability to do mathematics, (3) that they become mathematical problem solvers, (4) that they learn to communicate mathematically, and (5) that they learn to reason mathematically. These goals imply that students should be exposed to numerous and varied interrelated experiences that encourage them to value the mathematical enterprise, to develop mathematical habits of mind, and to understand and appreciate the role of mathematics in human affairs; that they should be encouraged to explore, to guess, and even to make and correct errors so that they gain confidence in their ability to solve complex problems; that they should read, write, and discuss mathematics; and that they should conjecture, test, and build arguments about a conjecture's validity.The opportunity for all students to experience these components of mathematical training is at the heart of our vision of a quality mathematics program. The curriculum should be permeated with these goals and experiences so that they become commonplace in the lives of students. We are convinced that if students are exposed to the kinds of experiences outlined in the Standards, they will gain mathematical power. This term denotes an individual's abilities to explore, conjecture, and reason logically, as well as the ability to use a variety of mathematical methods effectively to solve non-routine problems. This notion is based on the recognition of mathematics as more than a collection of concepts and skills to be mastered; it includes methods of investigating and reasoning, means of communication, and notions of context. In addition. for each individual, mathematical power involves the development of personal self-confidence.

National Council of Teachers of Mathematics, "Introduction,"Curriculum and Evaluation Standards for School MathematicsWe have drawn on the math standards outlined by the National Council of Teachers of Mathematics (NCTM) [http://www.enc.org/online/NCTM/280dtoc1.html]. These standards provide excellent guidelines for teachers on how to focus math work in their classrooms. As a unit, the Earth Day Trash Survey Unit addresses the following NCTM math standards for K-4 students:

- Use mathematics in other curriculum areas (Standard 4, Mathematical Connections).
- Use mathematics in their daily lives (Standard 4, Mathematical Connections).
- Collect, organize, and describe data (Standard 11, Statistics and Probability).
- Construct, read, and interpret displays of data (Standard 11, Statistics and Probability).
As a unit, the Earth Day Trash Survey Unit addresses the following NCTM math standards for 5-8 students:

- Explore problems and describe results using graphical and numerical models or representations (Standard 4, Mathematical Connections).
- Apply mathematical thinking and modeling to solve problems that arise in other disciplines (Standard 4, Mathematical Connections).
- Systematically collect, organize, and describe data (Standard 10, Statistics).
- Construct charts and tables (Standard 10, Statistics).
- Make inferences and convincing arguments that are based on data analysis (Standard 10, Statistics).
As a unit, the Earth Day Trash Survey Unit addresses the following NCTM math standards for 9-12 students:

- Use and value the connections between mathematics and other disciplines (Standard 4, Mathematical Connections).
- Construct and draw inference from charts, tables, and graphs that summarize data from real-world situations (Standard 10, Statistics).

Social StudiesWe have drawn on the National Council for the Social Studies [http://www.ncss.org/online/standards/toc.html] "Expectations of Excellence". These guidelines provide teachers with an excellent means of focusing social studies work in their classrooms As a unit, the Earth Day Trash Survey addresses the following NCSS social studies standards:

- Participate in activities to help their community (Standard 10, Civic Ideals and Practices).
- Formulate reports suggesting an action plan to address a problem of public concern (Standard 10,Civic Ideals and Practices).